Ryan Greenaway-McGrevy argues the TPPA is part of a broader ideological arm-wrestle at a time when globalisation is under siege in the West

This is the fourteenth in a series of articles Interest.co.nz has commissioned reviewing the key chapters and issues for New Zealand in the Trans-Pacific Partnership Agreement (TPPA). Links to all the analysis in this series are below.

By Ryan Greenaway-McGrevy*

Last week the UK shocked the world by choosing to leave the EU. Financial markets were clearly expecting a comfortable win for the Remain camp. But as the votes came in, the pound slipped lower and lower. The unthinkable has happened – at least in the view of the global elites.

Brexit is symptomatic of a global resurgence in illiberalism. From the impossible rise of Donald Trump in the US, to the momentum of Le Pen, Hofer and Wilders in Europe, the message behind these movements is clear: Close the borders. Stop the immigration and stop the trade

This is a reaction against globalisation.

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Rather than dismiss this as small-minded xenophobia, perhaps the champions of globalisation should listen. Globalisation has not worked out for many people and many communities. The middle class is shrinking and inequality is on the rise - at least within the West. Many middle-class jobs have been shipped overseas, while immigrants that are often thankful just to have any work at all take many of the low-paying service jobs at home. If you do not have the education that is necessary to get ahead these days, the future can look rather bleak. 

If the liberal agenda is to proceed, the gains from globalisation must be shared more equally. Oddly enough, the text of the TPPA recognises this. 

Chapter twenty-four of the TPPA is titled Development. It reads like a classical liberal manifesto. Take the second paragraph of the chapter, for example: 

The Parties acknowledge the importance of development in promoting inclusive economic growth, as well as the instrumental role that trade and investment can play in contributing to economic development and prosperity. Inclusive economic growth includes a more broad-based distribution of the benefits of economic growth through the expansion of business and industry, the creation of jobs, and the alleviation of poverty. 

“Inclusive economic growth” is wonk-speak for those at the bottom sharing in the gains from growth. The rest of the chapter echoes this general sentiment and fills in the details. Article 23.3 is titled Broad-based Economic Growth. This is where the chapter speaks to how economic growth can benefit those at the bottom of the ladder. Paragraph 23.3.1: 

The Parties acknowledge that broad-based economic growth reduces poverty, enables sustainable delivery of basic services, and expands opportunities for people to live healthy and productive lives.

The following paragraph then goes on to make a pragmatic case for broad-based economic growth:

The Parties recognise that broad-based economic growth promotes peace, stability, democratic institutions, attractive investment opportunities, and effectiveness in addressing regional and global challenges. 

In other words, ensuring that those at the bottom share in the gains is in everyone’s interests – even the wealthy – by reducing the likelihood of conflict. It even goes so far as to link poverty reduction to democracy, despite the fact that two of the TPPA signatories – Vietnam and Brunei – are not democracies. 

Divisions based on ethnicity, religion or gender can also be an impediment to inclusive growth, and in this regard the chapter does have some things to say about women’s rights. Article 23.4 is titled Women and Economic Growth, and it points out that allowing women to participate in the economy grows the economy. Indeed, much of the economic growth in the West after World War II was driven by women entering the workforce. Article 23.4.1: 

The Parties recognise that enhancing opportunities in their territories for women, including workers and business owners, to participate in the domestic and global economy contributes to economic development. 

It is an important point to make. Malaysia, Brunei and Mexico (all of which are TPPA signatories) rank poorly when it comes to women’s rights. They could be doing better. 

The Article suggests some specific ways for Parties to promote participation in the economy, such as permitting workplace flexibility (presumably for parents), creating female leadership networks, and building women’s assistance programs. 

The remainder of the chapter discusses the role that education, science, technology and research play in economic development; encourages willing Parties to collaborate in development activities; and establishes a Committee on Development to exchange information and experiences between Parties and to work with international donor organisations. 

Is this all just lip-service? 

Given the idealistic language of the chapter, it is not surprising that the chapter is not subject to dispute settlement (Article 23.9). This means that it is non-binding, and it remains the prerogative of the governments whether they choose to follow the edicts of the chapter in any way. 

It is tempting, then, to write this off as mere lip-service to liberal ideals. Although it is difficult to see from our vantage point here is New Zealand, the TPPA is however part of a broader ideological arm-wrestle. This is President Barack Obama addressing the US Congress earlier in the year: 

“With TPP, China does not set the rules in that region; we do. You want to show our strength this century? Approve this agreement.” 

Sure, some of these rules Obama is talking about are the finer points of investor-state dispute settlement that so many find unpalatable. But some of the rules are basic human rights – most prominently, the prohibition of slavery and human trafficking. Rights such as these are the foundation of liberal democracies around the world. So is trade, for that matter. 

While many of us view Trump et al. as an ugly and risible reaction against the status quo, it is important to remember that illiberalism is the foundation of many other regional powers. Vladimir Putin – a man Trump openly admires – led the Russian resurgence by cracking down on human freedoms. And while China has risen by embracing the classical liberal arguments for trade, its leaders are not yet willing to afford its citizens many of the other liberties that we take for granted. 

To many countries, international agreements with the West are a pathway to joining the liberal democratic world. It is no coincidence that 89% of Vietnamese think that the TPPA is a good thing, and that three-quarters view the US favourably. Perhaps it is easy to forget the American War when it is but one of many conflicts in the struggle for independence. A Trump Presidency would be a far bigger blow to the liberal cause in South East Asia then it could ever be to the US.

But it does not have to be this way. We can have globalisation, and we can more equitably share the gains from globalisation. The TPPA does not stop us from doing that. In a liberal democracy such as New Zealand, we can only stop ourselves.


*Ryan Greenaway-McGrevy is a senior lecturer in economics at the University of Auckland. Prior to that he was a research economist in the Office of the Chief Statistician at the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA) in Washington DC.

*Amber Carran-Fletcher contributed to this article.

The series so far:

Investor-state dispute settlement

Labour standards

Settling disputes

Intellectual property

SOEs and designated monopolies

Environment

Government Procurement

Sanitary and phytosanitary measures

National treatment and market access for goods

How the TPPA could boost competition in the building materials sector

What TPPA's investment chapter says, including on housing investment

What the TPPA says about remedies for unfair trade

What the TPPA means for SMEs

*And here's a video interview with Greenaway-McGrevy where he discusses the series.

We welcome your help to improve our coverage of this issue. Any examples or experiences to relate? Any links to other news, data or research to shed more light on this? Any insight or views on what might happen next or what should happen next? Any errors to correct?

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15 Comments

I aways keep in mind that the $US is the Global reserve currency...

Just that alone.... gives America an incredible edge in any kind of Global trade... and investment.

Since the creation of the modern Global Monetary system (Bretton Woods )....USA has NOT been a good citizen...in regards to Bretton Woods... It has abused its monetary position...

Do you think this is factored into Tppa...???

( a more obvious example of using a nations currency to basically subsidize exports...which kinda undermines the principles of free and fair trade.... one only needs to look at China)...

Have our Politicians factored this in...??? (it seems kinda basic...)
In a Monetary sense NZ is like a small child trying to arm wrestle a Body Builder ( USA )

Nothing wrong with trade. But globalisation has been sold as a panacea for many problems, when often it has been used to screw people in the interests of the big corporations.
One example is the migration issue. High availability of people who will accept low wages works for big business, (Queenstown) but cuts the cream of a big portion of our citizens.
If trucking companies paid drivers $10.00 per hour more, they would be under siege from NZ jobseekers. It's true I would pay a bit more for my groceries as a result. It's also true that the drivers would spend more with businesses. Better than helicopter money.

Yes, currently immigration is being used to prevent wage pressure. Thats why wherever wage pressure develops, another skilled migrant category opens up. Skilled migrants don't even need to be skilled, 2 years experience isn't skilled, it's not even qualified for fa.

I doubt that the public have an appetite to swallow any more spin and lies. Let them sort out the problems with the deals that we already have and prove that these attempts at soothing the public are real and not just more spin and lies before we add any extra problems.

"In other words, ensuring that those at the bottom share in the gains is in everyone’s interests – even the wealthy" except that the wealthy business owners have lobbied and got the Governments to loosen up on labour laws, allowing them to create such things as zero hour contracts (yes I know they were repealed, but replaced with what?), basically minimum hours at minimum wages - no security, no dependable income, not enough to live on, no benefits. Trickle down ? Rubbish! Those at the bottom sharing? rubbish being forced into a modern form of slavery more like it!

Something tells me he has missed the point about Brexit, Trump and the election in Australia..

Brexit has brought the senility of the elites to the forefront. Here is my choice for most senile of all, it's hard to read without laughing. http://www.zerohedge.com/news/2016-06-29/elites-called-arms-its-time-ris...

i watched a talk by John Pilger in which he described an interview with an underground journalist in communist era Czechoslovakia and the man told him those under a dictatorship had one advantage over those of us in the west, that was they knew the media was all lies and they knew how to read between the lines and see the real truth.

Mr Ryan Greenaway-McGrevy we see the truth

I have a sort of off track thought but it's something I've though about for a while.

There is no properly constructed alternative to neoliberal globalisation and the whole religion of monetarism is just a dead end cult but the left provides no answers which is why they are dying leaving only the right.

Unfortunately if you take NZ as an example and we are similar to other countries with 40% of the population having nothing and when the reality of their hopelessness sinks in they will look for alternatives.

A certain religion may very well step in and provide an alternative to the current monetarist suicide cult.

Worth thinking about when your zero sum economic model is forced onto societies.

LOL, another example of the senility of the ruling elite/media. Pretending the old arguments, are new arguments, and honestly believeing that people just don't understand what a beautiful new world you guys are creating. The uneducated just need to trust that only now, has the recipe been perfected, and some incredibly loosly worded affirmation, of the general goodness of broad based economic growth, are meant to encourage us to just get on board.
It's dammning that the best you can come up with, is that garbage, and it's a measure of senility that you think it makes an argument that can stand on its own merits. This status quo perpetuating media monopoly, is on the way out, as are the ruling elite. Credibility is crashing, as more people are waking up. Sure it's happening slowly, but it is happening.
The ruling elite, are so blind to this, and the only response is to double down with all the things that aren't working. You've found the right levers, but you're pushing them in exactly the wrong direction.

LOL China is evil, Russia is evil, Putin is particularly evil, Trump likes Putin so he is also evil. and the US is all about democrazy and freeedom.
Very, very few people, still believe that crap. Of those that do, most of them are clustered around the ruling elite.

I don't agree skudiv. Most people think that American foreign policy is caring and that they are wanting to share their democracy, most people think America attacked and Invaded Iraq, because they think Iraq attacked the twin towers. And we are an educated country?

Globalisation as propounded in the TPPA is not the way to balance wealth inequality and reduce poverty. How can shifting jobs to low wage economies and increasing the power of the parasitic financial class do this? It will do the opposite as the American middle and working class have found with NAFTA. The TPPA is a last ditch attempt by the USA to retain power and relevance. The only obvious resource to save the worlds economies is the New Silk Road initiative and surrounding projects being promulgated by China. NZ should find a way to get on board with this just as the UK has done with the Brexit, leaving it free to establish a yuan based financial hub. Better yet NZ should begin figuring out how to establish a working society in a low or no growth scenario as the world approaches the limits of its resources

Shifting jobs to low wage countries is a great way of reducing poverty in those countries; and has already achieved a great deal in that sense.

I agree but that is not one of the aims touted by those pushing the TPPA.